The Apollo mission of the 1960s and 1970s proved that it was safe to spend days on the surface of the moon. The Astronauts on the mission carried a dosimeter. The dosimeter was used to measure the amount of lunar radiation. However, daily radiation measurements were not taken.
Unlike Moon, Earth has a protective layer (Magnetosphere) that protects Earth from harmful space radiations. The magnetosphere is controlled by the earth’s magnetic field.
China’s Change 4 lander measured the number of radiation levels on the lunar surface. Hourly radiation measurements were taken. According to the data obtained scientists found that Astronauts may get exposed to 200 times more radiation levels than people on Earth. These radiations are higher than the radiation levels at International Space Station. According to the researches, a moon base covered with 50 centimeters of lunar soil is sufficient to protect them. Chamber shielded with 10 meters of water would be enough to protect from solar storms.
How the Moon lost its magnetic field ??
The formation of the moon took place around about 4.5 billion years ago. When the object of the size of Mars collided with the earth, at this time earth was in a proto phase. According to the theories at the time of collision earth was 100 million years old. After the collision, some debris formed the moon and others formed Earth. Due to gravity, the moon stabilized the spin axis of Earth. At that period Earth used to spin at a faster speed with a day lasting for 5 hours.
At some point, the moon became tidally locked, and hence thereafter we now only see one side of the moon. Billion years ago the magnetic field of the Moon and Earth were connected. Over the period of time the Moon’s interior cooled down and the moon lost its magnetosphere, and later its atmosphere. Studies suggest that the magnetic field of the moon must have vanished completely by about 1.5 billion years ago. Without a magnetic field, the atmosphere eventually died.