The Apollo mission of 1960s and 1970s proved that is was safe to spend days on the surface of the moon. The Astronauts on the mission carried dosimeter. The dosimeter was used to measure the amount of lunar radiation. However, daily radiation measurements were not taken.
Unlike Moon, Earth has a protective layer (Magnetosphere) which protects Earth form the harmful space radiations. The magnetosphere is controlled by the earth’s magnetic field.
China’s Chang’e 4 lander measured the amount of radiation levels on the lunar surface. Hourly radiation measurements were taken. According to the data obtained scientists found that the Astronauts may get exposed to 200 times more radiation levels as people on Earth. These radiations are higher than the radiation levels at International Space Station. According to the researches moon base covered with 50 centimetres of lunar soil is sufficient to protect them. Chamber shielded with 10 meters of water would be enough to protect from solar storms.